We are all stewards to each others' well-being.

2016.08.18 15:58

Wherever you go - whatever you do in life, this is the truth. CEO's to generals of armies to leaders of countries to teachers in the classroom to managers in all fields, we are all stewards to each others' well-being. It's called the human spirit. And it doesn't get enough credit sometimes.


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Vijay Kumar: The future of flying robots

2015.10.14 20:53

In my lab, we build autonomous aerial robots like the one you see flying here. Unlike the commercially available drones that you can buy today, this robot doesn't have any GPS on board. So without GPS, it's hard for robots like this to determine their position. This robot uses onboard sensors, cameras and laser scanners, to scan the environment. It detects features from the environment, and it determines where it is relative to those features, using a method of triangulation. And then it can assemble all these features into a map, like you see behind me. And this map then allows the robot to understand where the obstacles are and navigate in a collision-free manner.

What I want to show you next is a set of experiments we did inside our laboratory, where this robot was able to go for longer distances. So here you'll see, on the top right, what the robot sees with the camera. And on the main screen -- and of course this is sped up by a factor of four -- on the main screen you'll see the map that it's building. So this is a high-resolution map of the corridor around our laboratory. And in a minute you'll see it enter our lab, which is recognizable by the clutter that you see.


But the main point I want to convey to you is that these robots are capable of building high-resolution maps at five centimeters resolution, allowing somebody who is outside the lab, or outside the building to deploy these without actually going inside, and trying to infer what happens inside the building.

Now there's one problem with robots like this. The first problem is it's pretty big. Because it's big, it's heavy. And these robots consume about 100 watts per pound. And this makes for a very short mission life. The second problem is that these robots have onboard sensors that end up being very expensive -- a laser scanner, a camera and the processors. That drives up the cost of this robot.

So we asked ourselves a question: what consumer product can you buy in an electronics store that is inexpensive, that's lightweight, that has sensing onboard and computation? And we invented the flying phone.


So this robot uses a Samsung Galaxy smartphone that you can buy off the shelf, and all you need is an app that you can download from our app store. And you can see this robot reading the letters, "TED" in this case, looking at the corners of the "T" and the "E" and then triangulating off of that, flying autonomously. That joystick is just there to make sure if the robot goes crazy, Giuseppe can kill it.


In addition to building these small robots, we also experiment with aggressive behaviors, like you see here. So this robot is now traveling at two to three meters per second, pitching and rolling aggressively as it changes direction. The main point is we can have smaller robots that can go faster and then travel in these very unstructured environments.

And in this next video, just like you see this bird, an eagle, gracefully coordinating its wings, its eyes and feet to grab prey out of the water, our robot can go fishing, too.


In this case, this is a Philly cheesesteak hoagie that it's grabbing out of thin air.


So you can see this robot going at about three meters per second, which is faster than walking speed, coordinating its arms, its claws and its flight with split-second timing to achieve this maneuver. In another experiment, I want to show you how the robot adapts its flight to control its suspended payload, whose length is actually larger than the width of the window. So in order to accomplish this, it actually has to pitch and adjust the altitude and swing the payload through. But of course we want to make these even smaller, and we're inspired in particular by honeybees. So if you look at honeybees, and this is a slowed down video, they're so small, the inertia is so lightweight --


that they don't care -- they bounce off my hand, for example. This is a little robot that mimics the honeybee behavior. And smaller is better, because along with the small size you get lower inertia. Along with lower inertia --

(Robot buzzing, laughter)

along with lower inertia, you're resistant to collisions. And that makes you more robust. So just like these honeybees, we build small robots. And this particular one is only 25 grams in weight. It consumes only six watts of power. And it can travel up to six meters per second. So if I normalize that to its size, it's like a Boeing 787 traveling ten times the speed of sound.


And I want to show you an example. This is probably the first planned mid-air collision, at one-twentieth normal speed. These are going at a relative speed of two meters per second, and this illustrates the basic principle. The two-gram carbon fiber cage around it prevents the propellers from entangling, but essentially the collision is absorbed and the robot responds to the collisions. And so small also means safe. In my lab, as we developed these robots, we start off with these big robots and then now we're down to these small robots. And if you plot a histogram of the number of Band-Aids we've ordered in the past, that sort of tailed off now. Because these robots are really safe.

The small size has some disadvantages, and nature has found a number of ways to compensate for these disadvantages. The basic idea is they aggregate to form large groups, or swarms. So, similarly, in our lab, we try to create artificial robot swarms. And this is quite challenging because now you have to think about networks of robots. And within each robot, you have to think about the interplay of sensing, communication, computation -- and this network then becomes quite difficult to control and manage. So from nature we take away three organizing principles that essentially allow us to develop our algorithms. The first idea is that robots need to be aware of their neighbors. They need to be able to sense and communicate with their neighbors.

So this video illustrates the basic idea. You have four robots -- one of the robots has actually been hijacked by a human operator, literally. But because the robots interact with each other, they sense their neighbors, they essentially follow. And here there's a single person able to lead this network of followers. So again, it's not because all the robots know where they're supposed to go. It's because they're just reacting to the positions of their neighbors.


So the next experiment illustrates the second organizing principle. And this principle has to do with the principle of anonymity. Here the key idea is that the robots are agnostic to the identities of their neighbors. They're asked to form a circular shape, and no matter how many robots you introduce into the formation, or how many robots you pull out, each robot is simply reacting to its neighbor. It's aware of the fact that it needs to form the circular shape, but collaborating with its neighbors it forms the shape without central coordination. Now if you put these ideas together, the third idea is that we essentially give these robots mathematical descriptions of the shape they need to execute. And these shapes can be varying as a function of time, and you'll see these robots start from a circular formation, change into a rectangular formation, stretch into a straight line, back into an ellipse. And they do this with the same kind of split-second coordination that you see in natural swarms, in nature.

So why work with swarms? Let me tell you about two applications that we are very interested in. The first one has to do with agriculture, which is probably the biggest problem that we're facing worldwide. As you well know, one in every seven persons in this earth is malnourished. Most of the land that we can cultivate has already been cultivated. And the efficiency of most systems in the world is improving, but our production system efficiency is actually declining. And that's mostly because of water shortage, crop diseases, climate change and a couple of other things.

So what can robots do? Well, we adopt an approach that's called Precision Farming in the community. And the basic idea is that we fly aerial robots through orchards, and then we build precision models of individual plants. So just like personalized medicine, while you might imagine wanting to treat every patient individually, what we'd like to do is build models of individual plants and then tell the farmer what kind of inputs every plant needs -- the inputs in this case being water, fertilizer and pesticide. Here you'll see robots traveling through an apple orchard, and in a minute you'll see two of its companions doing the same thing on the left side. And what they're doing is essentially building a map of the orchard. Within the map is a map of every plant in this orchard.

(Robot buzzing)

Let's see what those maps look like. In the next video, you'll see the cameras that are being used on this robot. On the top-left is essentially a standout color camera. On the left-center is an infrared camera. And on the bottom-left is a thermal camera. And on the main panel, you're seeing a three-dimensional reconstruction of every tree in the orchard as the sensors fly right past the trees. Armed with information like this, we can do several things. The first and possibly the most important thing we can do is very simple: count the number of fruits on every tree. By doing this, you tell the farmer how many fruits she has in every tree and allow her to estimate the yield in the orchard, optimizing the production chain downstream.

The second thing we can do is take models of plants, construct three-dimensional reconstructions, and from that estimate the canopy size, and then correlate the canopy size to the amount of leaf area on every plant. And this is called the leaf area index. So if you know this leaf area index, you essentially have a measure of how much photosynthesis is possible in every plant, which again tells you how healthy each plant is. By combining visual and infrared information, we can also compute indices such as NDVI. And in this particular case, you can essentially see there are some crops that are not doing as well as other crops. This is easily discernible from imagery, not just visual imagery but combining both visual imagery and infrared imagery.

And then lastly, one thing we're interested in doing is detecting the early onset of chlorosis -- and this is an orange tree -- which is essentially seen by yellowing of leaves. But robots flying overhead can easily spot this autonomously and then report to the farmer that he or she has a problem in this section of the orchard.

Systems like this can really help, and we're projecting yields that can improve by about ten percent and, more importantly, decrease the amount of inputs such as water by 25 percent by using aerial robot swarms.

Lastly, I want you to applaud the people who actually create the future, Yash Mulgaonkar, Sikang Liu and Giuseppe Loianno, who are responsible for the three demonstrations that you saw.

Thank you.



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Simon Sinek, Why good leaders make you feel safe

2015.10.07 20:40

There's a man by the name of Captain William Swenson who recently was awarded the congressional Medal of Honor for his actions on September 8, 2009.

On that day, a column of American and Afghan troops were making their way through a part of Afghanistan to help protect a group of government officials, a group of Afghan government officials, who would be meeting with some local village elders. The column came under ambush, and was surrounded on three sides, and amongst many other things, Captain Swenson was recognized for running into live fire to rescue the wounded and pull out the dead. One of the people he rescued was a sergeant, and he and a comrade were making their way to a medevac helicopter.

And what was remarkable about this day is, by sheer coincidence, one of the medevac medics happened to have a GoPro camera on his helmet and captured the whole scene on camera. It shows Captain Swenson and his comrade bringing this wounded soldier who had received a gunshot to the neck. They put him in the helicopter, and then you see Captain Swenson bend over and give him a kiss before he turns around to rescue more.

I saw this, and I thought to myself, where do people like that come from? What is that? That is some deep, deep emotion, when you would want to do that. There's a love there, and I wanted to know why is it that I don't have people that I work with like that? You know, in the military, they give medals to people who are willing to sacrifice themselves so that others may gain. In business, we give bonuses to people who are willing to sacrifice others so that we may gain. We have it backwards. Right? So I asked myself, where do people like this come from? And my initial conclusion was that they're just better people. That's why they're attracted to the military. These better people are attracted to this concept of service. But that's completely wrong. What I learned was that it's the environment, and if you get the environment right, every single one of us has the capacity to do these remarkable things, and more importantly, others have that capacity too. I've had the great honor of getting to meet some of these, who we would call heroes, who have put themselves and put their lives at risk to save others, and I asked them, "Why would you do it? Why did you do it?" And they all say the same thing: "Because they would have done it for me." It's this deep sense of trust and cooperation. So trust and cooperation are really important here. The problem with concepts of trust and cooperation is that they are feelings, they are not instructions. I can't simply say to you, "Trust me," and you will. I can't simply instruct two people to cooperate, and they will. It's not how it works. It's a feeling.

So where does that feeling come from? If you go back 50,000 years to the Paleolithic era, to the early days of Homo sapiens, what we find is that the world was filled with danger, all of these forces working very, very hard to kill us. Nothing personal. Whether it was the weather, lack of resources, maybe a saber-toothed tiger, all of these things working to reduce our lifespan. And so we evolved into social animals, where we lived together and worked together in what I call a circle of safety, inside the tribe, where we felt like we belonged. And when we felt safe amongst our own, the natural reaction was trust and cooperation. There are inherent benefits to this. It means I can fall asleep at night and trust that someone from within my tribe will watch for danger. If we don't trust each other, if I don't trust you, that means you won't watch for danger. Bad system of survival.

The modern day is exactly the same thing. The world is filled with danger, things that are trying to frustrate our lives or reduce our success, reduce our opportunity for success. It could be the ups and downs in the economy, the uncertainty of the stock market. It could be a new technology that renders your business model obsolete overnight. Or it could be your competition that is sometimes trying to kill you. It's sometimes trying to put you out of business, but at the very minimum is working hard to frustrate your growth and steal your business from you. We have no control over these forces. These are a constant, and they're not going away.

The only variable are the conditions inside the organization, and that's where leadership matters, because it's the leader that sets the tone. When a leader makes the choice to put the safety and lives of the people inside the organization first, to sacrifice their comforts and sacrifice the tangible results, so that the people remain and feel safe and feel like they belong, remarkable things happen.

I was flying on a trip, and I was witness to an incident where a passenger attempted to board before their number was called, and I watched the gate agent treat this man like he had broken the law, like a criminal. He was yelled at for attempting to board one group too soon. So I said something. I said, "Why do you have treat us like cattle? Why can't you treat us like human beings?" And this is exactly what she said to me. She said, "Sir, if I don't follow the rules, I could get in trouble or lose my job." All she was telling me is that she doesn't feel safe. All she was telling me is that she doesn't trust her leaders. The reason we like flying Southwest Airlines is not because they necessarily hire better people. It's because they don't fear their leaders.

You see, if the conditions are wrong, we are forced to expend our own time and energy to protect ourselves from each other, and that inherently weakens the organization. When we feel safe inside the organization, we will naturally combine our talents and our strengths and work tirelessly to face the dangers outside and seize the opportunities.

The closest analogy I can give to what a great leader is, is like being a parent. If you think about what being a great parent is, what do you want? What makes a great parent? We want to give our child opportunities, education, discipline them when necessary, all so that they can grow up and achieve more than we could for ourselves. Great leaders want exactly the same thing. They want to provide their people opportunity, education, discipline when necessary, build their self-confidence, give them the opportunity to try and fail, all so that they could achieve more than we could ever imagine for ourselves.

Charlie Kim, who's the CEO of a company called Next Jump in New York City, a tech company, he makes the point that if you had hard times in your family, would you ever consider laying off one of your children? We would never do it. Then why do we consider laying off people inside our organization? Charlie implemented a policy of lifetime employment. If you get a job at Next Jump, you cannot get fired for performance issues. In fact, if you have issues, they will coach you and they will give you support, just like we would with one of our children who happens to come home with a C from school. It's the complete opposite.

This is the reason so many people have such a visceral hatred, anger, at some of these banking CEOs with their disproportionate salaries and bonus structures. It's not the numbers. It's that they have violated the very definition of leadership. They have violated this deep-seated social contract. We know that they allowed their people to be sacrificed so they could protect their own interests, or worse, they sacrificed their people to protect their own interests. This is what so offends us, not the numbers. Would anybody be offended if we gave a $150 million bonus to Gandhi? How about a $250 million bonus to Mother Teresa? Do we have an issue with that? None at all. None at all. Great leaders would never sacrifice the people to save the numbers. They would sooner sacrifice the numbers to save the people.

Bob Chapman, who runs a large manufacturing company in the Midwest called Barry-Wehmiller, in 2008 was hit very hard by the recession, and they lost 30 percent of their orders overnight. Now in a large manufacturing company, this is a big deal, and they could no longer afford their labor pool. They needed to save 10 million dollars, so, like so many companies today, the board got together and discussed layoffs. And Bob refused. You see, Bob doesn't believe in head counts. Bob believes in heart counts, and it's much more difficult to simply reduce the heart count. And so they came up with a furlough program. Every employee, from secretary to CEO, was required to take four weeks of unpaid vacation. They could take it any time they wanted, and they did not have to take it consecutively. But it was how Bob announced the program that mattered so much. He said, it's better that we should all suffer a little than any of us should have to suffer a lot, and morale went up. They saved 20 million dollars, and most importantly, as would be expected, when the people feel safe and protected by the leadership in the organization, the natural reaction is to trust and cooperate. And quite spontaneously, nobody expected, people started trading with each other. Those who could afford it more would trade with those who could afford it less. People would take five weeks so that somebody else only had to take three.

Leadership is a choice. It is not a rank. I know many people at the seniormost levels of organizations who are absolutely not leaders. They are authorities, and we do what they say because they have authority over us, but we would not follow them. And I know many people who are at the bottoms of organizations who have no authority and they are absolutely leaders, and this is because they have chosen to look after the person to the left of them, and they have chosen to look after the person to the right of them. This is what a leader is.

I heard a story of some Marines who were out in theater, and as is the Marine custom, the officer ate last, and he let his men eat first, and when they were done, there was no food left for him. And when they went back out in the field, his men brought him some of their food so that he may eat, because that's what happens. We call them leaders because they go first. We call them leaders because they take the risk before anybody else does. We call them leaders because they will choose to sacrifice so that their people may be safe and protected and so their people may gain, and when we do, the natural response is that our people will sacrifice for us. They will give us their blood and sweat and tears to see that their leader's vision comes to life, and when we ask them, "Why would you do that? Why would you give your blood and sweat and tears for that person?" they all say the same thing: "Because they would have done it for me." And isn't that the organization we would all like to work in?

Thank you very much.

Thank you. (Applause)

Thank you. (Applause)


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14.11.19 아케데미 운영위원으로 정기회의에 참석하다.

2014.11.19 15:26

SAMSUNG | SHV-E210S | Aperture priority | Center-weighted average | 1/61sec | F/2.6 | 0.00 EV | 3.7mm | ISO-80 | Flash did not fire | 2014:11:19 10:03:50

SAMSUNG | SHV-E210S | Aperture priority | Center-weighted average | 1/2376sec | F/2.6 | 0.00 EV | 3.7mm | ISO-80 | Flash did not fire | 2014:11:19 09:18:22

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CEO를 위한 성격 테스트 문항

2014.11.15 12:14


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